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{\rtf1\ansi {\colortbl;\red0\green0\blue0;\red0\green0\blue255;\red0\green255\blue255;\red0\green255\blue0;\red255\green0\blue255;\red255\green0\blue0;\red255\green255\blue0;\red255\green255\blue255;}{\fonttbl{\f0\fswiss\cpg0\fcharset0 Arial;}{\f1\fswiss\cpg1252\fcharset0 Arial;}{\f2\fswiss\cpg1251\fcharset204 Arial;}{\f3\fswiss\cpg1250\fcharset238 Arial;}{\f4\fswiss\cpg1257\fcharset186 Arial;}{\f5\fswiss\cpg1254\fcharset162 Arial;}{\f6\fswiss\cpg1253\fcharset161 Arial;}{\f7\fswiss\cpg1255\fcharset177 Arial;}{\f8\froman\cpg0\fcharset0 Times New Roman;}{\f9\froman\cpg1252\fcharset0 Times New Roman;}{\f10\froman\cpg1251\fcharset204 Times New Roman;}{\f11\froman\cpg1250\fcharset238 Times New Roman;}{\f12\froman\cpg1257\fcharset186 Times New Roman;}{\f13\froman\cpg1254\fcharset162 Times New Roman;}{\f14\froman\cpg1253\fcharset161 Times New Roman;}{\f15\froman\cpg1255\fcharset177 Times New Roman;}}{\stylesheet {\sbasedon222\f9\fs20 Normal;}}\paperw12240\paperh15840\margl914\margr5688\margt1440\margb720 \sectd \sbknone\pgwsxn12240\pghsxn15840\marglsxn914\margrsxn5688\margtsxn1440\margbsxn720\cols1\colsx60 \pard \plain \cbpat8\ql\li518\fi0\ri0\sb0\sa443 \f9\fs20{\b0\i0\cf1\charscalex100\expndtw0\f1\cchs0\lang1033\fs72 ^}\par \sect\sectd \sbknone\pgwsxn12240\pghsxn15840\marglsxn2333\margrsxn5699\margtsxn1440\margbsxn720\cols2\colno1\colw2880\colsr1076\colno2\colw720 \pard \plain \cbpat8\ql\li0\fi0\ri0\sb0\sa0 \f9\fs20{\b0\i0\cf1\charscalex100\expndtw-7\f9\cchs0\lang1033\fs22 VlMA KADPHISES : KANISKA}\par \column \pard \plain \cbpat8\ql\li0\fi0\ri0\sb18\sa0 \f9\fs20{\b0\i0\cf1\charscalex100\expndtw0\f9\cchs0\lang1033\fs22 223}\par \sect\sectd \sbknone\pgwsxn12240\pghsxn15840\marglsxn914\margrsxn5688\margtsxn1440\margbsxn720\cols1\colsx60 \pard \plain \cbpat8\qj\li76\fi0\ri0\sb209\sa0\sl-238\slmult0 \f9\fs20{\b0\i0\cf1\charscalex100\expndtw4\f9\cchs0\lang1033\fs24 identified with the "Great King Uviama Kavthisa" or \expndtw13 Oemo or Wema or Vima Kadphises of the coins.\super 1 \nosupersub\expndtw11 He is credited with the conquest of India (T'ien-\expndtw15 tchieou). This may not be true, if taken literally, \expndtw4 but the wide distribution of his coins and the assump\-\expndtw15 tion of high-sounding titles like "the great king,}\par \pard \plain \cbpat8\ql\li76\fi0\ri0\sb0\sa0\sl-238\slmult0\tldot\tx4324 \f9\fs20{\b0\i0\cf1\charscalex100\expndtw5\f9\cchs0\lang1033\fs24 king of kings, the lord of all people{\charscalex100\expndtw0\tab }\expndtw9 ," show that}\par \pard \plain \cbpat8\qj\li50\fi0\ri4\sb0\sa0\sl-238\slmult0 \f9\fs20{\b0\i0\cf1\charscalex100\expndtw5\f9\cchs0\lang1033\fs24 his authority extended east of the Indus to the Punjab \expndtw16 and possibly also to the United Provinces. He \expndtw10 governed his Indian possessions through a Viceroy, \expndtw12 to whom has been attributed the large number of \expndtw1 copper coins, usually known as the issues of the "Name\-\expndtw9 less king", which are quite common in various parts \expndtw12 of Northern India. Lastly, it appears from the epi\-\expndtw14 thet, \i Mahesvara, \i0 on his coins as also from \i Nandi \i0\expndtw1 and the figure of Siva on their reverse, that Vima Kad\-\expndtw-1 phises was probably a devotee of the Hindu vgod, Siva. \expndtw3 Needless to comment on how soon the Kushans suc\-\expndtw4 cumbed to their Hindu environments.}\par \pard \plain \cbpat8\ql\li54\fi2275\ri2232\sb122\sa0\sl-320\slmult0 \f9\fs20{\b0\i\cf1\charscalex100\expndtw-3\f9\cchs0\lang1033\fs23 Kaniska \expndtw1 His date}\par \pard \plain \cbpat8\qj\li22\fi454\ri29\sb119\sa0\sl-241\slmult0 \f9\fs20{\b0\i0\cf1\charscalex100\expndtw7\f9\cchs0\lang1033\fs24 Kaniska is indubitably the most striking figure among the Kushan kings of India. A great conqueror \expndtw12 and a patron of Buddhism, he combined in himself \expndtw5 the military ability of Candragupta Maurya and the \expndtw10 religious zeal of ASoka. Our knowledge of Kaniska \expndtw2 is, however, meagre, and his chronological position \expndtw16 unhappily still remakis a puzzle to us. It is not \expndtw8 known what his connection was with Vima Kadphis-}\par \pard \plain \cbpat8\qj\li0\fi385\ri43\sb184\sa0\sl-198\slmult0 \f9\fs20{\b0\i0\super\cf1\charscalex100\expndtw-1\f9\cchs0\lang1033\fs21 1\nosupersub Also identified with Maharaya Gushana, mentioned in the \expndtw3 Panjtar record of the year 122 \i (C.I.L, \i0 II, no. XXVI, pp. 67-70). \expndtw1 Sir John Marshall, on the other hand, hesitatingly identifies this \expndtw0 king with Kadphises I \i (J.R.A.S., \i0 1914, p. 977). The name Uvima \expndtw-1 Kavthisa or Vima Kadphises, however, occurs, if the reading is \expndtw2 correct, in the Khalatse (Ladakh) inscription of the year 184 (?) \expndtw1 or i8\sub 7\nosupersub (?)\sub 5\nosupersub  \i C.I.L, \i0 II, no. XXIX, pp. 79-81.}\par }